Technology

TEXT MESSAGING GLOSSARY

Air Interface
AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone Service)
Analog
ASP (Application Service Provider)
CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access)
CDMA2000
CDMAONE
CDPD (Cellular Digital Packet Data)
Coverage
Digital
Flash SMS
GPRS (General Packet Radio Service)
GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications)
GSM 1800
GSM 1900
GSM 900
Messaging Gateway
MMS (Multimedia Message Service)
MT (Mobile Terminated)
MO (Mobile Originated)
One-Way Text-Messaging
PCS (Personal Communication Services)
PDC (Personal Digital Communications)
Picture Message
Polyphonic Ring Tones (Polyphonic Tones)
SIM Card
SIMLock
Smart Phone
SMS (Short Message Service)
SMSC (Short Message Service centre)
SNPP (Simple Network Paging Protocol)
SS7 (Signaling System Number 7)
TAP (Telocator Alphanumeric Protocol)
TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access)
TDP/TME (Telocator Data Protocol)
Text-Messaging
Third-Generation (3G)
TNPP (Telocator Network Paging Protocol)
Two-Way Text-Messaging
VPN (Virtual Private Network)
WAE (Wireless Application Environment)
WAP - (Wireless Application Protocol)
WIM (Wireless Instant Messaging)
WIN (Wireless Intelligent Network)
Wireless Bridge
Wireless LAN
Wireless Modem
Wireless Portal

Air Interface

The standard operating system of a wireless network. Air interface technologies include: AMPS, TDMA, CDMA, and GSM.
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AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone Service)

An analog cellular radio standard that serves as the foundation for the U.S. cellular industry. AMPS represents the first generation of wireless networks.
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Analog

The traditional method of modulating radio signals. Most U.S. cellular phones use analog but are migrating to digital technologies. AM (amplitude modulation) and FM (frequency modulation) are the two most common methods of analog modulation.
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ASP (Application Service Provider)

An organization that hosts software applications on its own servers, within its own facilities. Customers access the application via private lines or the Internet. ASP is also called a "commercial service provider."
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CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access)

An air interface technology that was developed by the U.S. military and commercialized by the U.S. company Qualcomm. This is a cellular technology originally known as IS-95. CDMA supports SMS with a message length of 120 characters. With CDMA, each conversation is digitized and then tagged with a code. The mobile phone receives a signal to locate that particular code and it then deciphers the conversation off the airwaves. It codes each conversation expanding it 128 times, making it easy to decipher at the receiving end.
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CDMA2000

3G CDMA evolution from cdmaONE, supported by cdmaONE operators. Phase 1 provides 144 Kbps data rate and Phase 2 up to 2 Mbps. See Third Generation.
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CDMAONE

The name used by the CDMA Development Group (CDG) for CDMA networks (15-95) using second generation digital technology.
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CDPD (Cellular Digital Packet Data)

An enhanced packet overlay on analog cell phone networks used to transmit and receive data. This technology allows data files to be broken into a number of packets and sent along idle channels of existing cellular voice networks. CDPD provides 19.2 Kbps and is deployed by AT&T and several other carriers.
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Coverage

Refers to the region within which a paging receiver can reliably receive the transmission of the paging signals.
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Digital

A digital signal is composed of electrical pulses representing either zero or one. Because digital signals are made up only of binary streams, less information is needed to transmit a message. Digital encoding therefore increases the capacity of a given radio frequency. Furthermore, only digitized information can be transported through a noisy channel without degradation. Even if corruption occurs, as long as the one-zero pattern is recognizable, the original information content can be replicated perfectly at the receiving end.
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Flash SMS

Flash SMS is a specialized SMS feature that enables a standard text message to be delivered directly to the "front page" screen of a mobile device. The recipient does not need to scroll through any menu options to view the SMS message - it is not stored in the "inbox" of the mobile phone.

This is a powerful SMS protocol for important messages that do not need to be stored, but should be read quickly. As with most SMS devices, the recipient is able to save any flash SMS by selecting that option once the message has been read.
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GPRS (General Packet Radio Service)

General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a new bearer service for GSM that greatly improves and simplifies wireless access to packet data networks, e.g. to the Internet. It applies a packet radio principle to transfer user data packets in an efficient way between mobile stations and external packet data networks.

Allows information to be sent and received across a mobile telephone network that makes Internet connections easier. GPR5 is used to boost wireless data transmission over G5M networks. GPRS can achieve 171.2 kilobits per second (kbps, which is about three times as fast as the data transmission speeds possible over today's fixed telecommunications networks and ten times as fast as current GSM networks.) Unlike existing digital wireless Net connections, no dial-up modem is necessary.
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GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications)

A digital mobile phone standard used extensively in Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Asia, and parts of America and Canada. First introduced in 1991, the GSM standard has been deployed at three different frequency bands: 900 MHz, 1800 MHz and 1900 MHz. GSM 1900 is primarily deployed in North America. Named after its frequency band around 900 MHz, GSM 900 has provided the basis for several other networks using GSM technology. GSM uses narrowband TDMA which allows eight simultaneous calls on the same radio frequency. Along with CDMA and TDMA, it represents the second generation of wireless networks.

Several phases have been defined for GSM:

GSM Phase 1 features


Call Forwarding
All Calls
No Answer
Engaged
Unreachable
Call Barring
Outgoing - Bar certain outgoing calls
Incoming - Bar certain incoming calls
Global roaming - Visit any other country with GSM and a roaming agreement, using your phone and existing number*

GSM Phase 2 features

SMS - Short Message Service - Allows you to send text messages too and from phones
Multi Party Calling - Talk to five other parties as well as yourself at the same time
Call Holding - Place a call on Hold
Call Waiting - Notifies you of another call whilst on a call
Mobile Data Services - Allows handsets to communicate with computers
Mobile Fax Service - Allows handsets to send, retrieve and receive faxes
Calling Line Identity Service - This facility allows you to see the telephone number of the incoming caller on our handset before answering
Advice of Charge - Allows you to keep track of call costs
Cell Broadcast - Allows you to subscribe to local news channels
Mobile Terminating Fax - Another number you are issued with that receives faxes that you can then download to the nearest fax machine.

GSM Phase 2 + features

Upgrade and improvements to existing services including GPRS (General Packet Radio Service)
DECT access to GSM
PMR/Public Access Mobile Radio (PAMR)-like capabilities
GSM in the local loop
Virtual Private Networks
Packet Radio
SIM enhancements
Premium rate services
Enhanced Data-over-GSM Speeds
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GSM 1800

The GSM 1800 band provides for a GSM uplink in the range 1710-1785 MHz and downlink in the range 1805-1880 MHz.
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GSM 1900

The GSM 1800 band provides for a GSM uplink in the range 1850-1910 MHz and downlink in the range 1930-1990 MHz.
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GSM 900

The GSM 900 band provides for a GSM uplink in the range 890-915 MHz and downlink in the range 935-960 MHz.
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Messaging Gateway

A computer system that converts one messaging protocol to another. It provides an interface between two store and forward nodes, or message transfer agents (MTAs).
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MMS (Multimedia Message Service)

Refers to higher service level protocol, which allows images, audio, text, video, and combinations of these to be sent over a GSM network.
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MT (Mobile Terminated)

Refers to a message packet whose final destination is a mobile handset. Thus, the delivery is terminated at the mobile device. i.e. Sending a text message to your cellular phone from a website.
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MO (Mobile Originated)

Refers to a message packet that originated from a mobile handset. Thus, the delivery begins at the mobile device. The final destination could be another wireless handset or a networked computer set up to respond or perform a particular action, depending on the content of the message.
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One-Way Text-Messaging

Sending short (wireless data) messages to a smart phone, pager, wireless PDA, or other handheld device via the Internet. Text messaging implies sending short messages generally no more than a couple of' hundred characters in length. In Europe, text messaging was popularized by the GSM cell phone system's Short Messaging Service (SMS), which supports messages of up to 160 characters.
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PCS (Personal Communication Services)

A second-generation digital voice, messaging, and data cell phone system in the 2GHz range. PCS is supported mostly by GSM.
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PDC (Personal Digital Communications)

A Japanese digital cellular standard that supports SMS.
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Picture Message

Picture message is a term sometimes used to describe an MMS message.
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Polyphonic Ring Tones (Polyphonic Tones)

A polyphonic tone contains two or more notes that are played simultaneously.
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SIM Card

Smart card that gives GSM phones their user identity. SIM cards make it easy for phones to be rented or borrowed.
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SIMLock

SIMLock is used by GSM network operators to restrict the operation of a mobile phone. SIMlock can be removed by entering a special code.
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Smart Phone

A digital cellular phone that has text messaging, web access, and other data services along with voice.
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SMS (Short Message Service)

The transmission of short text messages to and from a mobile phone, fax machine, and/or IP address. Messages must be no longer than 160 alphanumeric characters and contain no images or graphics.

Once a message is sent, it is received by a Short Message Service centre (SMSC), which must then get it to the appropriate mobile device. To do this, the SMSC sends a SMS Request to the home location register (HLR) to find the roaming customer. Once the HLR receives the request, it will respond to the SMSC with the subscriber's metadata: 1) inactive or active, and 2) where subscriber is roaming. If the response is 'inactive,' then the SMSC will hold onto the message for a period of time. When the subscriber accesses the device, the HLR sends a SMS notification to the SMSC, and the SMSC will attempt delivery. The SMSC transfers the message in a Short Message Delivery Point-to-Point format to the serving system. The system pages the device, and if it responds, the message is delivered and receives verification.
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SMSC (Short Message Service centre)

The hardware device submitting the messages. Currently, SMSC devices support binary formats. A software module called the SMS gateway is used to give instructions to the SMSC. The protocol described in this draft is proposed to provide a standard for service providers to interact with SMS gateways or SMS centres.
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SNPP (Simple Network Paging Protocol)

A sequence of commands and replies where pages are delivered to individual paging terminals. The most obvious benefit is the elimination of the need for modems and phone lines to produce alphanumeric pages, and the ease of delivery of pages to terminals in other cities or countries.
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SS7 (Signaling System Number 7)

Signalling System Number 7 is an international telecommunications standard developed by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) Telecommunication Sector (ITU-T). The Signalling System Number 7 standard defines the procedures and protocols by which elements in the public switched telephone network (PSTN) exchange out-of-band signaling information over a digital signaling network. The protocols and procedures define such things as call set-up and tear-down, call management, call routing, call forwarding, display of calling party number, wireless services, and so on. The Signaling System Number 7 standard refers to out-of-band signaling, that is signaling that is not sent down the same channel as the voice call.

In GSM, the Signaling System Number 7 is used for all signaling on all links except for the air interface (or radio interface).
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TAP (Telocator Alphanumeric Protocol)

A SMS standard. The pre-cursor to TDP, a simple protocol dedicated to the forwarding of alphanumeric pages. Although the features and capabilities of TAP are in TDP, the TAP protocol may co-exist with TDP. The TAP protocol may be utilized to forward binary data to RF linked computers if input is formatted and processed.
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TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access)

TDMA (time division multiple access) is a technology used in digital cellular telephone communication that divides each cellular channel into three time slots in order to increase the amount of data that can be carried. It allows a large number of users to access a single radio-frequency channel without interference, where each user is given a unique time slot within each channel.
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TDP/TME (Telocator Data Protocol)

A suite of protocols used for sending messages from a computer, through a paging system, to a mobile receiving computer. Together, these protocols define the flow of messages from input devices through several processing steps until the entire message is received by a RF linked computer. The set is compromised of several protocols including TME, TRT, and TMC.
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Text-Messaging

See One-Way Text-Messaging and Two-Way Text-Messaging.
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Third-Generation (3G)

A new wireless standard promising increased capacity and high-speed data applications up to two megabits. Implemented in Europe as UMTS and cdma2000 in North America. Goals are high-quality multimedia and advanced global roaming (in house, cellular, satellite, etc.).
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TNPP (Telocator Network Paging Protocol)

A one-way paging networking standard. TNPP is supported by most one-way and two-way messaging networks, but can only be used for one-way messaging. The TNPP protocol is used for moving pages from one paging system to another over standard lines.
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Two-Way Text-Messaging

Sending short (wireless data) messages to a smart phone, pager, PDA, or other handheld device from another web enabled device. Two-way implies that the device receiving the message is able to reply via text-messaging as well. Text messaging implies sending short messages generally no more than a couple of hundred characters in length. In Europe, text messaging was popularized by the GSM cell phone system's Short Messaging Service (SMS), which supports messages of up to 160 characters.
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VPN (Virtual Private Network)

Private networks that are configured within a public network. Carriers build VPNs that appear as private national or international networks to the customer, but physically share backbone trunks with other customers. VPNs enjoy the security of a private network via access control and encryption, while taking advantage of the economies of scale and built-in management facilities of large public networks. VPNs have been built over X.25, Switched 56, frame relay, and ATM technologies. The VPN adds an extra layer of security.
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WAE (Wireless Application Environment)

The part of the WAP protocol that application and service developers use most in their work. The WAE consists of the WML and WMLScript specs as well as the Wireless Telephony Application Interface (WTAI) that specifies how WAP applications can access mobile phone functionality (initiate a call, send an SMS).
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WAP - (Wireless Application Protocol)

An open standard for communication between handsets and the Internet. WAP is a wireless communications environment for delivering Web data to wireless terminals with minimal screen display. WAP is an initiative started by Unwired Planet, Motor'ola, Nokia and Ericsson to develop a standard for wireless content delivery on the next generation of mobile tsuites. WAP strips all but graphics for display on small screens, such as mobile phones. A mini-browser is an integral part of WAP-enabled phones. WAP-enabled phones first appeared in Europe at the end of 1999.
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WIM (Wireless Instant Messaging)

Bridges the gap between wired and wireless networks. WIM seamlessly allows a desktop user to instantly send a message to a handset.
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WIN (Wireless Intelligent Network)

Transaction processing infrastructure for wireless systems.
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Wireless Bridge

A device used to transmit and receive radio frequencies over the air between two LANs.
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Wireless LAN

A Local Area Network that uses radio frequency transmission over the air. Works like a cellular phone system with roaming between cells.
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Wireless Modem

Modem and antenna for analog and digital cell phones, CDPD, ARDIS, BeliSouth Intelligent Wireless Network, etc.
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Wireless Portal

A website that supports access or data transmission to devices such as smart phones or alphanumeric pagers.
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